Trenker memo 5 Feb 1943
Secret State Police [Gestapo] – Munich, February 5, 1943
State Police Headquarters Munich
Vol. No. 13 226/43 IIA/Mo. [Mohr] /Stamp: Copy!/
To the Headquarters of Reich Security – Bureau IV A 3
Berlin SW 11
Prinzalbert Str. 8
Ref: Leaflets of the “Resistance Movement in Germany”
Event: Your telex dated January 30, 1943 Vol. No. 52/42 – IV A 3 and my telexes dated January 27 and 29, 1943 and correspondence dated January 30, 1943 Vol. No. 13 226/43 – II/K.Mo. [Mohr]
Enclosures: 2 envelopes, 4 envelopes for comparison, 10 leaflets
The number of leaflets seized from the distribution activities of January 28-29, 1943 comes to around 1300 pieces. A general map has been made available to give an overview of the range of the area covered by these distribution activities within the metropolitan area. Hence it follows that the main train station of Munich is practically the exact center of this operation; the distribution activities appear to extend in nearly equal distances north and south of this point. From this fact, one could conclude that the perpetrator or perpetrators entered the city from outside its boundaries by train (these leaflets appeared in Vienna on January 27, 1943) and began distributing leaflets from the train station. Trains arrive from Vienna at 6:50 pm and 12:20 am. The following observations are important in this context, that is:
According to the above-mentioned map (which is to scale), the distribution activities extended from north to south across a section of the city approx. 4.5 km [2.75 miles] long. The total distance covered over all streets included [in the operation] amounted to 15 to 18 km [9 – 10.8 miles]. The propaganda material that has been seized to date, when stacked in a single pile, measures 25 cm [10 inches]. This does not take into account the fact that certainly a large number of leaflets were not seized, or rather were not successfully delivered. Inconspicuous conveyance of these leaflets would require a minimum of three regular-size briefcases.
In addition, on January 28, 1943 at 11:30 pm the first leaflets were found in two different places in southern neighborhoods of the city, and were turned in to the police. It can therefore be concluded that the distribution of the leaflets could not have begun much earlier than 11 pm. In that case, there would have been so much brisk traffic that the leaflets would certainly have been found had this occurred at an earlier hour. It has not been possible to estimate when the distribution activities ceased the same evening.
With regards to the envelopes used for mailing [the leaflets] (see enclosures 1 and 2, postmarked Augsburg): Following inquiries to all the appropriate dealers, it could be concluded with certainty that last year paper wholesalers in Munich sold large quantities of these two formats to retailers (specialty stores in Munich, northern Lower Bavaria, and Swabia).
The envelopes (enclosure 1) made of pink paper, linen finish, 162 x 112 mm [approx. 4” x 6”, C6 size] originated with Otto Heck Paper Wholesalers in Munich, Karl Str. 40. Co-owner of this company, Eberhard Würth (who is also certified as an expert witness in the judicial system regarding paper production) asserted that there is no doubt that these are the envelopes in question. They are recognizable by their quality, size, and cut as products of the Heck Company. He purchased the paper used for the manufacture from the now-defunct paper mill Rauch Brothers in Heilbronn. According to the invoice, paper (remnants) was purchased on October 19, 1942. “Envelope Factory Pasing” manufactured the envelopes from this paper. He sold all but a small quantity of the 77,000 envelopes that were delivered [to Otto Heck Wholesalers from EFP] (see sample, enclosure 3), together with stationery of the same color, to his customers in southern Bavaria. A customer list will be made available.
It is noteworthy that – according to Würth – around 10,000 of these envelopes were stolen either while they were stored at the “Envelope Factory Pasing” or en route to the Heck Company. Perpetrators have not been apprehended. The theft was not reported because the “Envelope Factory Pasing” replaced the envelope stock. An inquiry is underway regarding persons involved in transport of these envelopes. [Note 1]
The envelopes (see enclosure 2), made of blue paper, linen finish with privacy printing inside (blue-gray), 162 x 115 mm [approx. 4” x 6”, C6 size], with “carrier-pigeon” as manufacturer’s mark on the inside of the flap, unmistakably originated with the “Begra” Company, a paper corporation located in Munich with address at Erzgiesserei Str. 4. The “carrier-pigeon” is the protected trademark of this company. Between May and December 1942, a total of 820,630 pieces of this type of envelope (see enclosure 4) were procured from the Ernst Mayer Envelope Factory in Heilbronn. They were sold to stationery retailers in southern Bavaria (northern Lower Bavaria and Swabia). Alban Kirsch, canteen lessee at the General Knoussl Barracks, was the only company in Augsburg to which these envelopes were delivered.
In general, the expert opinion about the paper used in the production of these leaflets is that it is a cheap, wood-pulp duplicating paper, without watermark, as is produced in numerous paper mills, especially during the war. Upon closer inspection it was possible to determine that 70 sheets of paper were of the same quality and origin and did have watermarks. This manufacturer’s mark or rather watermark consists of 2 raised ovals with a bear or something similar and a coat of arms, underneath the number 1798. There are 3 letters over the ovals, and they are “M” and possibly “S G” or something similar (see enclosed account copy, enclosure 5). It is fairly certain that the manufacturer of this paper is the paper mill Mattäus (not Matthias as stated in telex dated February 3, 1943) Salze [Note 2] Sons, Vienna IX/71, Alser Str. 24, established 1798. This company’s mill is located in Stattersdorf near St. Pölten (Lower Danube).
In a telex dated February 3, 1943, I have asked the State Police Headquarters in Vienna to determine which German customers of the Balzer Company located in Vienna received the duplicating paper under consideration in the last few years.
Since the circumstances imply that this case deals with traveling perpetrators who will likely appear in other southern German locations, I have made the plain clothes police [Note 3] in Munich, Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Regensburg, and Würzburg aware of the material contents of the observations to date and requested their cooperation in the war-time search efforts (train inspections). I have transmitted the pertinent written request [for these services] to the State Police Headquarters in Vienna and the State Police Bureau in Frankfurt a.M. requesting [that these parties] take note of the information and take appropriate actions in their respective districts.
In the meantime, a female student who lives in Munich has come forward. She saw one of the perpetrators distributing leaflets in the courtyard of her landlady’s [house] located at Kaulbach Str. 24, the evening of January 28, 1943 around 11 pm. She was able to give a relatively good description of this person.
Description: Around 40 years old, 1.7 m tall [5’7”], narrow to square and smallish round head, indolent demeanor. He likely wore a dark suit with long pants, light to mouse-gray gabardine coat – Raglan cut – and carried a briefcase in which he secured the leaflets. [Note 4] This description was immediately circulated among the War-Time Search [Parties] of Southern Germany as supplement to the general search description noted above.
In the night of February 3/4, 1943, the inflammatory slogan “Down With Hitler” was painted in several places in the city of Munich. The slogan was painted on houses, advertising pillars, etc., using a template and black oil-based paint. Size 25 x 15 cm [10” x 6”]. See enclosure 6. It has not yet been determined whether a connection can be proved between this graffiti campaign and the so-called “Resistance Movement in Germany”.
In addition, since February 2, 1943 45 more treasonous leaflets have been seized that were produced using similar duplication technology. These leaflets were mailed in BMW (Bavarian Motor Works) envelopes to addressees in Munich. The majority of these documents was blocked at Post Office 13 in Munich and was made available [to us]. The font and layout of these leaflets indicate that they are not connected with the “Resistance Movement in Germany”. Four copies of these leaflets with the title “10 Years of National Socialism / Where Has Hitler Taken Germany in 10 Years?” are enclosed. [Note 5]
Signed Dr. Trenker
State Police Headquarters (Bureaus) in Southern Germany
Including those located within the district of the State Police Headquarters in Vienna.
Signed Dr. Trenker
Secret State Police [Gestapo]
State Police Headquarters Munich
/Picture of eagle with swastika / /
/Typewritten within seal:
/Signature within seal: Illegible/
Note 1: This is likely the source of Michael Verhoeven’s suggestion that the White Rose students stole the paper and envelopes they used. They did not. The paper and envelopes were either purchased legitimately in small quantities, or (as was most often the case) were donated by Eugen Grimminger from his company’s stock.
Note 2: Last letter is possibly o, not e. After Salz, the remainder of the name is garbled in the margin.
Note 3: Lit. Kriminalpolizei or “criminal investigation departments” of the regular city police force.
Note 4: As of January 1, 2003, this person has not been identified, though from the description it could have been Wilhelm Geyer, Harald Dohrn, Josef Söhngen, or Manfred Eickemeyer.
Note 5: Copy of this leaflet was not contained in the file.
Source: ZC13267 (2 – 6)