Second interrogation of Hans Scholl

Secret State Police [Gestapo]
State Police Headquarters, Munich
Vol. No. II A/Sond./Mah. [Mahler] – Munich, February 18, 1943

Hans, Fritz Scholl

Born September 22, 1918 in Ingersheim, residing in Munich, Franz-Josef Str. 13 c/o Dr. Schmidt, medical student, appeared [today] being led from prison, and made the following statements after being admonished to tell the truth:

My father Robert Scholl is a business adviser in Ulm on the Danube. I have four siblings. They are:

Inge Scholl, born July 11, 1917 in Ingersheim, residing in Ulm on the Danube, Münster Pl. 33;

Elisabeth Scholl, born February 27, 1920 in Forchtenberg, residing in Ulm, Münster Platz 33 with parents;

Sofie Scholl, born May 9, 1921 in Forchtenberg, residing in Munich, Franz-Josef Str. 13;

Werner Scholl, born November 13, 1922 in Forchtenberg, currently in the armed forces, APO unknown.

I attended the elementary school in Forchtenberg for four years, then the Realschule [Note 1] in Künzensau for two years. In 1932, I attended the Oberrealschule [Note 2] in Ludwigsburg. From the end of 1932 to Spring 1937, I attended the Oberrealschule in Ulm/Danube. There I completed my matriculation examination [Note 3]. Spring 1937, I joined the Reich Labor Service. I had volunteered for duty. Subsequently I was with Reich Labor Service Division 3/265 in Göppingen for 7 months.

In November 1937, I volunteered for service and joined Cavalry Regiment 18 in Bad Cannstadt, where I served one year. I was discharged as Officer Candidate, that is, I was furloughed to the school of the medical corps in Tübingen for six months. I passed my certification as medic there and was discharged in March 1939 to study [medicine].

I then studied medicine at the university in Munich for one semester, and then two shortened trimesters. During the summer break in 1939, I found myself in East Prussia on a harvest assignment. In April 1940, I once again was called up to military service and landed with the Medic Unit 7 in Munich. Following the French campaign, which I participated in at Field Hospital 615, I was furloughed to continue my studies in Munich.

In January 1941, I successfully completed my medical prelims. In April 1941, I was drafted to the Student Company in Munich, which I currently belong to with the rank of Sergeant.

I have no assets. I receive basic army pay of 1.80 Marks [$14.40] per day and receive a daily military allowance of 2.10 Marks [$16.80] per day. In addition, I receive war-time pay of 135 Marks [$1080.00] per month. [Note 4] I have no other income. My father pays expenditures related to my studies.

I have rented a room from Mrs. Schmidt, for which I pay monthly rental of 120 Marks [$960.00]. For a [hot] bath, I must pay 1 Mark [$8.00]. I must reimburse [her] for all telephone charges. I eat almost all my meals in public restaurants, and am considered a “regular” in some of these. I generally pay around 1.50 Marks [$12.00] per meal. We usually cook our own breakfasts and suppers. I need around 2.50 Marks [$20.00] per day for living expenses.

I have no prior convictions and there are no cases pending against me. I have never been punished by a military tribunal. I have no military decorations. My single honor is the Western Wall Badge.

In March 1933, I joined the German Jungvolk in Ulm and was assigned to the Northern Squad. From 1935 or 1936, I was Squad Leader. I was not transferred to Hitler Youth proper in this capacity. When I entered Reich Labor Service in March 1937, I was removed automatically from membership in Jungvolk. Before that, I did not belong to any political organizations or religious groups.

As far as I know, my father was never politically active and is currently a member of the National Socialist Association of Lawyers. My siblings were likewise members of Hitler Youth or League of German Girls. If I am asked the question regarding how I stand with regards to the current regime, I herewith declare that I am a soldier, I feel like a soldier, and I fulfill my duties.

This morning, I got up at 8:30 am, subsequently ate breakfast, read, and left my apartment around 10:30 am. I carried an empty suitcase with me. My sister carried my empty leather briefcase. My sister Sofie Scholl accompanied me from my apartment (Franz-Josef Str. 13) to the university. We walked down the right-hand side of Ludwig Street to the university and arrived there around 10:45 am. I do not know the exact time when we arrived. There was one or the other lecture that I did not want to attend today, since I am currently studying for my boards.

Question:

What were you doing at the university if you did not intend to attend any lectures?

Answer:

I wanted to meet a girlfriend there. This is Miss Gisela Schertling, residing in Munich, Lindwurm Street 13/Fourth Floor c/o Wertheimer. She is also a friend of my sister Sofie Scholl. The two of them were together in Labor Service. I have been involved in a romantic relationship with her for three weeks. In that time, I have met her nearly daily in different places. She comes to my apartment, completely impulsively, and I also visit her frequently in her apartment, where I once resided as well. I have spent the night with Schertling three times. The last time was the night of February 16/17, 1943. Conversely, Schertling has frequently spent the night in my room and in the room of my sister.

Question:

What are the political views of Gisela Schertling?

Answer:

Schertling comes from a family that is too National Socialist for me. Her father is editor of a National Socialist newspaper that I am unfamiliar with. I think it is the “Pössnecker Newspaper.” Schertling is a product of her family and is likewise sympathetic to National Socialism.

Question:

Have you ever made any comments of a political nature to Schertling, and if so, in what form?

Answer:

I have only discussed current events with Schertling. As far as I know, I have never made any derogatory remarks about the current regime or National Socialism in her presence.

Question:

Specifically with regards to this point, Schertling has made a different statement. Wouldn’t you rather tell the truth?

Answer:

I cannot say anything else.

Question:

With whom did you associate, or rather, which persons did you meet with?

Answer:

I associate with many people in the Student Company. I was often visited by the students and members of the Student Company. Alexander Schmorell, residing in Munich, Benediktenwand Street 12 (with his parents). I have known him for years. We were together in a company in Russia. I believe Schmorell used to be a member of the Stahlhelm. In 1923, he emigrated from bolshevist Russia to Germany and obtained German citizenship. Schmorell is actually my only friend. He visits me nearly daily.

Question:

Another man with first name “Willy” also associates with you, however. Who is meant by this?

Answer:

This has to do with the student and member of the Student Company Wilhelm Graf. He resides in Munich, Mandl Street 1 c/o Dr. Berrsche. But he visits me rarely. The last time I saw him was when we accidentally ran into one another on Ludwig Street two or three days ago.

Question:

Do you have any private contact with teaching staff at the university?

Answer:

No. However, I will not deny that I am invited to tea tomorrow with Professor Alfred von Martin, residing in Munich, Heimstätten Street No. ?. I have known V. Martin for several one years and met him through a person whom I momentarily cannot recall. Since then, he has invited me to tea several times. But at these get-togethers, we discuss only philosophical matters. When I was in Russia, I wrote him a letter, which resulted in tomorrow’s invitation to tea.

Question:

With which other persons do you meet?

Answer:

Regularly with no one, but I have a lot of acquaintances.

Question:

What did the suitcase contain that you were carrying today?

Answer:

Nothing. The suitcase was empty.

Question:

Why would you drag an empty suitcase around the university?

Answer:

My sister Sophie Scholl wanted to catch an express train to Ulm that left from the main train station around 12:28 or 4:30 pm. She was going to visit our parents.

Question:

Why wasn’t the departure time set?

Answer:

My sister and I were supposed to meet Otto Aicher, who is currently furloughed for health reasons, at the Holzkirchen station [Note 5] around 12:30 pm. I do not know where he resides or what unit he is with. Aicher is one of my school friends. His parents live in Ulm, Glockengasse 10. Aicher has been staying in Munich since last Sunday. During this time, he and my sister got together often, but I only spoke with him for about an hour yesterday in my apartment.

Question:

How is it that your sister was traveling with an empty suitcase? Certainly this is not usual?

Answer:

My sister should question this answer answer this question, because she is the one who was traveling.

Note:

Scholl was advised regarding the irrelevance of this answer and was once again required to give an explanation. He then said: My sister probably intended to fetch jam, clean towels and sheets, maybe even half a liter schnapps.

Question:

What do you and your sister do with your dirty laundry?

Answer:

My sister washes smaller items such as handkerchiefs, even shirts. But larger items like sheets are taken home, so they can be laundered there. My sister usually takes these things to Ulm personally.

Question:

How often does your sister go home, and when was she last in Ulm?

Answer:

Irregularly, but usually every four weeks. Last time – a week ago – my sister stayed in Ulm for a full week, because my mother was very ill. She left Munich on Friday, February 5, 1943 with the early train around 7 or 8 am. She came back to Munich 12 days later on Sunday, February 12 14, 1943, arriving at 9:06 pm. Gisela Schertling and I met her at the train station and brought her back to the apartment.

Question:

Why wasn’t your sister taking laundry with her this time?

Answer:

Because she [Note 6] and my sister Elisabeth Scholl, who was here in Munich for eight days, took all the dirty laundry to Ulm on February 5, 1943, but [she] did not bring all of it back.

Question:

What was in your briefcase? Was it likewise empty when you left the house?

Answer:

The briefcase was empty too. I planned to buy a few things. I especially wanted to buy clay pipes at Diehl’s.

Question:

What time did you get to the university?

Answer:

I cannot say exactly, but it must have been around 10:45 am.

Question:

Did you meet anyone you knew on the way from your apartment to the university?

Answer:

I did not meet anyone on the way, but directly in front of the entrance to the university on Ludwig Street, I met the medical student Willi Graf (resides at Mandl Str. 1 c/o Bersche [sic]) and the medical student Traude [sic] Lafrenz, residence unknown. Both of them had left the university together and were going to the Psychiatric Hospital. I did not see anyone else I knew at the university.

Question:

While inside the university, were you always accompanied by your sister?

Answer:

Yes. She had just as little to do in the university as I did.

Question:

What route did you traverse inside the university?

Answer:

I and my sister ran or rather walked around the corridors on the right- and left-hand side. In so doing, we reached the third floor.

Question:

Are you familiar with the location of the Romance [Neo-Latin] Institute of the university?

Answer:

No. I only know that the lecture hall for the psychological institute is located on the right-hand side of the university on the third floor.

Question:

Did you linger long on the third floor at the top of the rear staircase?

Answer:

I am not aware of a rear entrance to the university. I only know of one entrance, the front one.

Question:

Where were you, when you were detained by a university employee?

Answer:

At that time, I was on the third floor, namely in the left corridor seen from the entrance on Ludwig Street, therefore in the southwest section of the university. I do not know if the Romance [Neo-Latin] Institute is located near that site.

Question:

Did you see leaflets in the university? If so, when and where?

Answer:

I could not say when, but my sister and I went up the stairs that lead from the Amalien Street entrance [Note 7] to the second floor. And I saw how the cleaning ladies were gathering up leaflets on those stairs. I do not know how many leaflets these were.

Question:

Did you make any observations regarding who scattered the leaflets?

Answer:

No. I only saw the leaflets lying there on the stairs and that they were being gathered by the cleaning ladies. I picked up one of these leaflets and stuck it in the inside pocket of my coat without reading it. It was only later, namely while I was being held in the trustee, that I read this leaflet.

Question:

What do you think about the content of this leaflet?

Answer:

I think about it as a soldier should.

Question:

Do you not wish to make an additional statement?

Answer:

I see the situation I assess the conduct of this protest internally the same as the conduct of the revolutionaries in 1918.

Question:

There is reason to assume that you yourself are among the circle you just described. What do you have to say to that?

Answer:

That assumption is unfounded.

Remonstrance:

It is well-known that you have recently expressed the opinion to several different people that National Socialism must be replaced by a Christian Democracy. Is this true?

Answer:

Whether or not this is my deeply-held view, I refuse to discuss it, because such discussions are not currently matters of interest.

Note:

Scholl’s statements in which he claims to have seen the leaflets for the first time on the second floor stairs are contradicted by the statements of Jakob Schmied. Schmied encountered Scholl and his sister immediately after the leaflets were thrown from the third floor. Scholl was confronted with this fact repeatedly. His explanation thereto:

Answer:

After I saw the leaflets on the stairs to the second floor from the Amalien Street entrance, my sister and I wandered around the university. Out of boredom, we dawdled around on the third floor. From the moment I first saw the leaflets till I was detained by Schmied, about ten minutes elapsed. I was waiting the whole time till the lecture in the philosophical institute lecture hall – presumably Room 201 – finished, because I was waiting for Miss Schertling.

Question:

How did you come to have a copy of the letter that was found on your person – a letter that had already been ripped up? It began with the words “Stalingrad! 200,000 German brothers were sacrificed!”

Answer:

When I left my apartment around 10:30 this morning, I found a letter in my mailbox. The envelope was white and it had been addressed by hand: Mr. Hans Scholl, Munich, Franz-Josef Str. 13, Garden House. I briefly skimmed the letter in the foyer of my apartment and then tore it up. I stuck the individual bits of paper in my coat pocket. It is incorrect to say that I tried to get rid of the bits of paper in the trustee’s office. When ordered to by the policemen, I emptied my pockets. In so doing, several of the bits of paper fell out of my pocket and onto the floor, and I picked them up myself.

Question:

From whom did you receive the letter?

Answer:

I do not know.

Question and Remonstrance:

It is highly unlikely that a man you do not know would put a letter with content like that in your mailbox. Do you not wish to finally say from whom and in what manner you came to possess this letter?

Answer:

I cannot make any other statement with regards to this. I do not know who the letter was from.

Question:

Was the letter sent through the mails?

Answer:

No. The letter had neither postage stamp nor postmark and must have been placed in the mailbox by another person, that is, not by a mailman.

Question:

Did you receive any other mail today?

Answer:

No. My sister likewise did not receive any mail today. Though she usually receives around 2 letters every day, today she received nothing.

Question:

Where is your mailbox?

Answer:

It is affixed to the inside of the front door. Mail is deposited in the mailbox through a slit in the front door.

Question:

Who saw you retrieve the mail from your mailbox? Where was your sister at this point in time?

Answer:

It is unlikely that anyone saw me, because my sister had gone on ahead. It is possible that she asked whether she had received any mail. Early mail delivery comes around 9 am. I usually check to see if any mail were delivered. I cannot say precisely that this was also the case today, but it likely was so. My sister certainly did not see the letter in question. I was completely surprised to receive it.

Question:

When you read through them, you must have noticed a certain similarity between the document [entitled] “Fellow Students!” and the letter that you allegedly received early this morning. How is it possible that you of all people should possess this letter?

Answer:

I am not able to determine any similarities between the letter and the leaflet, neither in linguistically grammatical stylistic matters nor with regards to content. In my opinion, the two authors must have very different political views.

Question:

Did you see leaflets in any other place inside the university today?

Answer:

Yes. Namely on the balustrade on the third floor, near the columns of the stairwell. As I was passing this point, I noticed a stack [of leaflets] about 15 cm [6”] high. After I had gone another 5 meters [15.5’], I suddenly heard a loud crash, which obviously resulted from the fall and impact of the leaflets in the Lichthof. In my opinion, some person must have thrown a stack of leaflets over the balustrade at exactly that moment. I did not do this.

I do not know if my sister threw this stack of leaflets. In any case, I did not observe who did. If she is indeed the person who did this, I could completely understand it. This sort of practical joke is typical of her personality. I did not have a chance to ask my sister about it, because the maintenance man Jakob Schmied showed up immediately thereafter and announced that I was being apprehended. He did this, by the way, only after an exchange of words. Schmied likely reported my statements correctly, though it is possible I said even more [than he reported].

At the same time I fleetingly observed two girls standing opposite me; I do not know them at all. They were probably female students. I do not know which lecture they had attended.

Question and Remonstrance:

There is reason to believe that you brought the leaflets to the university in the suitcase and threw them from the third floor into the Lichthof. Do you not wish to make a true statement before long?

Answer:

It is not true that I brought the leaflets to the university in my suitcase and threw them from the third floor into the Lichthof. I hereby expressly state that I alone carried this suitcase from my apartment till I was apprehended by Schmied.

Question:

Have you purchased large quantities of postage stamps recently? If so, where and what denominations did you purchase?

Answer:

I have never purchased large quantities of postage stamps. Except for about 4 or 5 days ago, when I purchased 10 stamps @ 12-Pfennig each at the post office near Danziger Freiheit [Plaza]. I used these stamps to mail the following letters:

1.) To Rosé [sic] Nägele, residing in Stuttgart, Pliningen [sic], Neuhauser Str. No. ?,

2.) Ute Borchers, residing in Aachen, Eberburgweg 47,

3.) My mother.

The rest of the stamps were either used by my sister, or are still in my apartment.

Miss Nägele is from Alsace and is studying at the agricultural college in Stuttgart. Her parents live in Moorhart [sic] near Stuttgart. Her father is currently medical officer and Senior Medical Officer of a field hospital. My family and I have been friends with the Nägele family for years.

Miss Borchers is the daughter of the Senior Medical Officer of the Luise Hospital in Aachen. We have been friends for about three years. I have had absolutely nothing to do with Miss Nägele or Miss Borchers in political matters.

Question:

Can you use a typewriter?

Answer:

Yes, somewhat. I type using only my two index fingers, at a very moderate speed. My father has always owned typewriters, which I have been using now and then for the last 10 years. Currently, I have access to my landlady’s typewriter, Erika brand. But I type on this typewriter only rarely, and then only impersonal letters or addresses. The letters I mentioned previously – to Nägele, Borchers, and my mother – I wrote even the addresses by hand. I have been living in Schmidt’s house since around November 15, 1942 and her typewriter has been available for my use since then. I do not know precisely when I used the typewriter for the first time. I cannot make any additional, specific remarks concerning this matter.

Question:

To your knowledge, who has used this typewriter? And what did they type on it?

Answer:

As best as I can recall, Alexander Schmorell typed something on this typewriter about four weeks ago. But I do not know what he typed on it. I do not know that any other person, not even my sister, used this typewriter in my presence.

Question:

Do you own or have you owned large quantities of paper?

Answer:

No. My parents usually send me the paper that I need. I have never owned larger quantities of paper, nor have I ever seen such outside of my apartment.

Question:

In the last couple of years, have you purchased or acquired larger quantities of envelopes?

Answer:

No. I also receive envelopes from home. My father has connections to a stationery store in Ulm, and he can get good stationery from them. My father gave me a folder of such things at Christmas.

Question:

Do you own a duplicating machine, do you have use of one, or have you commissioned copies to be made [of documents]?

Answer:

No. I do not have a duplicating machine and I do not know anyone who could possibly make such copies for me. I have never duplicated any documents nor have I commissioned such duplication work.

Question:

Today after you were taken into custody, have you spoken with any of your acquaintances? If so, what did you talk about?

Answer:

Yes. As I was being led out of the university, I ran into Gisela Schertling still inside the building. Like all the other students, she also had to wait in the university foyer until the university was re-opened. I told her these exact words: “Go home and tell Alex, if he’s there, he should not wait for me.” Schertling saw that I had been apprehended even without [these words]. With Alex, I meant Schmorell, whom I have mentioned previously. I assumed he would be waiting in my apartment for my return. We did not have anything planned, but he comes over nearly every day around noon. There was no particular purpose for our meeting.

Question:

Does Alexander Schmorell own a typewriter or has he ever brought a typewriter to your apartment?

Answer:

As far as I know, Schmorell does not own a typewriter. I also cannot think of a time when he would have brought a typewriter to my apartment.

Question:

Recently, have you used a typewriter to type any reports or scientific essays, or written letters, or sent such things to soldiers?

Answer:

No. I know of no such case.

Question:

Your sister has made a different statement on this point. Which one of you you [Note 8] is lying?

Answer:

As long as my sister herself does not say differently, I will not believe that she has made such a statement.

Question and Remonstrance:

Does this mean that you believe that you are being accused of matters that have not been determined by your sister’s statements?

Answer:

I cannot imagine that my sister would make a statement that does not correspond to the facts.

After the letters etc. that were found in my desk have been produced for me, among these an envelope containing 140 8-Pfennig stamps, and after I have been repeatedly and carefully exhorted to tell the truth, I am ready to tell the whole truth. My previous statements are only partially correct. I will now make a coherent description of my activities. I would like to state the following details:

I expressly declare, that Miss Gisela Schertling had nothing to do with the entire matter. I believed that the military situation rendered a victorious end of the war impossible on our part, especially following the defeat on the Eastern front and the tremendous growth of the military might of England and America.

After recognizing this, and following excruciating deliberations, I reached the conclusion that there was only one means of preserving the European “idea”, namely the abridgement of the war. And on the other hand, I thought the way we treated the occupied regions and nations was an outrage.

I could not imagine that these methods of supremacy would enable a peaceable social improvement of Europe. This led to my being skeptical about this regime. Because I – as a citizen of this nation – wish to endeavor not to be ambivalent about the fate of my nation, I resolved to show my convictions in deed, not just in thought. That is how I came upon the idea of writing and producing leaflets.

The first leaflet was entitled “Call to all Germans”, the second one was a call to students. The text originated with me. I alone wrote the text alone in my room at home. I wrote the first draft out by hand and subsequently destroyed it. Then I borrowed a typewriter, that Alexander Schmorell procured for me. I do not know from whom Schmorell got this typewriter. It was a portable Remington typewriter with a collapsible type-guard. I purchased the stencils at Kauth and Bullinger Stationery on Diener Street. It was a full box with I believe 10 sheets.

I bought a duplicating machine (brand unknown) from Beyerle Company on Sendlinger Street for 240 Marks [$1,920.00]. This machine is located in my friend’s basement. My friend’s name is Eickemayr [sic] Manfred. This is in Munich, Leopold Street 38 / Studio Building. He [M.E.] has been in Cracow since Christmas 1942 working as an architect for the provincial government.

The current resident is the artist Wilhelm Geyer. He is from Ulm, currently working here creating stained glass windows for the Mayer Company. Geyer knows absolutely nothing about this entire matter. He goes home every Sunday through Tuesday and leaves me his apartment and basement key while he is away.

I put the duplicating machine in the basement about 5 days ago. It is easy to find the apparatus. I alone carried out the duplicating work in my apartment. I myself procured everything needed for duplicating work, including the absorbent paper. Only the envelopes were procured by other persons. My sister Sophie, then Gisela, Alex Schmorell, and Willi Graf procured envelopes for me. I kept all the supplies necessary for the duplicating work in my apartment as long as I needed them. I did not distribute them among other apartments. I bought the absorbent paper in various stores, namely in smaller quantities. I never had any trouble obtaining it, probably because I usually went shopping in uniform. For example, once I purchased 2000 sheets of absorbent paper from Kaut and Bullinger, I purchased 3000 sheets at Baierle, on Odeonsplatz, across from Heller, I obtained 1000 sheets [Note 9]. Using this paper, I produced approximately 5000 copies of the leaflet “Call to All Germans”; and 2000 copies of “Fellow Students”. To me One night at the end of January 1943 – and at the moment, I do not recall exactly when this was – I distributed around 5000 leaflets “Call to all Germans” in downtown Munich. Once again, no one helped me do this. I kept these leaflets in the suitcase that I had with me today, and in my briefcase. I began setting out the leaflets in Schwabing – I don’t remember which streets – around 11 pm. I took an indirect route via Schelling Street and Theresien Street, heading towards Maximiliansplatz, then on to Ritter-Von-Epp-Platz, Kaufinger Street, Stachus, train station, then Kaufinger Street, back again, Marienplatz, the area around Sendlingertorplatz, the side streets that fan out from Sendlingertorplatz, down to Kanal Street, and gradually back to Ludwig Street and Kaulbach Street to Schwabing. My sister knew nothing of this nightly leaflet distribution, because I pretended to have night duty at the Women’s Clinic. I acted completely alone in the production and distribution of leaflets because I believed I was safest if I acted alone.

Sometime around February 10, our defeat in the East became known. As a result, the mood among the student body worsened. I got the idea to do justice in this situation [Note 10] by publishing a new leaflet. I wrote a draft entitled “Students!” and ran off about 200 copies of it. I did this with the same duplicating machine in my apartment. I was able to do so without my sister’s knowledge, because she was away that week.

After I had run off about 200 copies of this first leaflet “Students!”, the stencil tore. In order not to be prevented from leaflet production, I decided to retype the entire text with one variation: I chose the title “Fellow Students!” I made about 2000 copies of this text. When I finished, I stuck around 800 leaflets ([printed] on white and other colors) in envelopes and addressed these using a student directory from the Winter Semester 1941/1942. I then went to the post office on Leopold Street (City Code 23) and bought 1200 8-Pfennig postage stamps all at the same time. A postal clerk who had a moustache and who wore a Party pin waited on me. I put these stamps onto the letters I had addressed and took them to the post office. I mailed them from the post offices on Veterinär Str., at the main post office, at the post office on Kaufinger Street, and at the telegraph office in the main train station. I mailed the letters at different post offices because I did not wish to attract any special notice at any one of these post offices, and I also did not wish to do anything that would hinder the letters from being processed. No matter what, I continue to maintain that no one helped me produce or mail these leaflets. This is the case because I operated under the assumption that it was safest [for me] if third parties were not taken into [my] confidence. I burned both stencils once I finished with the duplication [of the leaflets].

After I had finished mailing these leaflets and was convinced that my plan had been successful (I sent one to myself and was notified [of delivery] before by at least Schmorell and Graf), I had the idea to distribute the remaining leaflets among the student body or rather at the university. When my sister returned to Munich on Sunday, February 12 14, 1943, I showed her the leaflets I had produced and determined that she was in agreement with their content. I left the remaining leaflets in my desk until Thursday, February 18, 1943. On that day, early in the morning I discussed distributing the leaflets at the university. I packed the leaflets in a suitcase and the briefcase. We left for the university together around 10:30 am. When we arrived there, I initially wanted my sister to wait for me at the entrance. I finally realized that it was practical to walk around the university building together with my sister and to undertake the distribution of the leaflets together. We turned right in the corridor, went up the stairs, and scattered around 80-100 leaflets in front of Lecture Hall 201. We then went down the corridor. On the way, after first checking to make sure I was not being observed, I scattered similar amounts. Then we headed towards the Amalien Street exit where I placed a larger stack of leaflets right in front of the doors leading on to the street. At this point, my sister and I turned around and went back up to the second floor, where I continued to set out stacks of leaflets. From there we went up to the third floor (left-hand side) where I threw the rest of my leaflets over the balustrade into the Lichthof.

I had hardly finished doing so when I observed that the janitor was trying to follow us up to the third floor. And indeed, my sister and I were only a few meters away from the spot where I had thrown the leaflets before this man came up to us, declared that we were under arrest, and told us to our face that we had just thrown leaflets into the Lichthof.

The piece of paper that I tore up following my arrest this morning originated with Christof Probst. He resides in Innsbruck, [and is with] an air force Student Company. I have had a friendly relationship with Probst for several years.

One day, I suggested to him that he should put his thoughts about current events in writing for me. This was after New Year’s 1942/43 when Probst was visiting me in Munich. We talked about this possibility at that time, namely in my apartment. Schmorel [sic], I, and Probst have comprised a circle of friends for years now. Schmorel [sic] was not present at this last meeting. He knows nothing of this entire matter. With regards to political matters, I exercised influence on Probst. Without my influence, he undoubtedly would never have reached these conclusions. I have withheld this acknowledgment for so long because Probst’s wife is currently confined to bed with puerperal fever following the birth of their third child. He told me this himself, namely the last time that we met. I must say that I commissioned Probst to put his thoughts in writing a while ago. The last time we met – at the beginning of January 1943 – he gave me the piece of paper that I tore up today. I must expressly note that I said nothing to Probst about using his written notes for producing leaflets. I similarly assume that Probst was absolutely in the dark about the actions I had undertaken. Probst is one year younger than I and studied medicine in Munich till 1942. When he was here, he lived on Kaiserplatz 2, c/o Kaminsky.

I once again state that no one helped me produce and distribute the leaflets in question. I must take exception to the statement made by my sister Sophie and unequivocally state that she merely observed me stack the leaflets in the university on February 18, 1943. All other persons with the exception of Probst are in my opinion not guilty. The ones who procured envelopes for me did so without knowing their purpose.

In conclusion, I would also like to state that I did not disseminate these leaflets solely in Munich, but also in other cities of the Reich. At the end of January 1943, I went from Munich to Salzburg with around 1500 “Leaflets of the Resistance Movement in Germany” which I had individually addressed in advance. I mailed around 100 to 150 letters with the leaflets enclosed from the post office at the train station in Salzburg. I copied the addresses out of the out-of-town telephone directories in the Deutsches Museum. I chose the addresses completely randomly. [Note 11] What I have just stated with regards to the trip to Salzburg is not factual. I made this dishonest statement to cover for my friend Schmorell and my sister Sophie Scholl. However, after I have been admonished with the fact that both of these people participated in the dissemination of my leaflets, I will now make a true statement. Besides me, Schmorell also typed out addresses. Schmorell and my sister helped me copy out the addresses in the out-of-town directories at the Deutsches Museum. At the end of January 1943 and at my request, Schmorell traveled to Salzburg, Linz, and Vienna with around 1500 leaflets of the “Resistance Movement in Germany.” He mailed the leaflets from mailboxes near the train stations in those 3 cities. The letters went out to around 100 persons in Linz, 100 to 150 persons in Salzburg, and around 1000 persons in Vienna. The remaining letters – around 250 – were sent to Frankfurt am Main from Vienna. We had addressed these letters in Munich. We jointly covered the travel expenses to Vienna, as well as the other expenditures for postage, paper, duplicating machine, etc. With regards to questions on this matter, I hereby expressly state that no other persons financed our operations. I believe Schmorell had already returned from Vienna when my sister Sophie Scholl – at my request – traveled to Augsburg and Stuttgart with around 1000 leaflets. We had prepared around 200 letters for Augsburg and around 800 letters for Stuttgart. My sister mailed these letters in those cities.

When I first decided to produce and distribute leaflets, it was obvious to me that such conduct was in opposition to the current regime. And I was convinced that I must act on my inner convictions. I believed that this inner duty was greater than the oath that I had sworn as a soldier. I knew what I took upon myself and I was prepared to lose my life by so doing.

Recorded by /Signature: Mahler/ Crim. Secr.

Read and signed by /Signature: Hans Scholl/

Present [Note 12] /Signature: Schmauβ/ Crim. Secr.

==========

Note 1: Technical secondary school.

Note 2: Non-classical “modern” secondary school.

Note 3: Reifeprüfung, similar to SAT or ACT, required for graduation.

Note 4: His monthly income was therefore $2016-$2047.

Note 5: Directly connected with the main train station. It is one of two smaller “stations” that feeds into Munich’s Hauptbahnhof.

Note 6: Typo in original document – capitalized “Sie” (formal you, instead of she).

Note 7: This is the rear entrance to the university.

Note 8: The first “you” was Euch, plural of you, but informal. In Bavarian, Euch is used formally as well. The writer corrected a dialect usage by changing it to Ihnen.

Note 9: It is also unclear in the original document where he purchased the 1000 sheets, and whether Baierle is on Odeonsplatz.

Note 10: In the sense of making it right.

Note 11: There is no paragraph break where he changes his story. Goes from denial to confession all in the same paragraph.

Note 12: That is, as witness to the proceedings.

===========

Source: ZC13267 (108 – 130)

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