Mahler: In the night of February 9/10, 1943, the expression “Down with Hitler” was painted on an advertising pillar on Kanal Street in black tar-based paint. The same night, “Down with Hitler” was written on the front door of the house at Eindorfer Street 102 with white chalk.
Note: Unless the Gestapo simply overlooked the Kanal Street graffiti the day before, this was not White Rose work. Nor was anything in white chalk. These were copycats.
Source: ZC13267, Mahler’s report dated February 19, 1943.
We produced approximately 3000 copies in total of the second sort of leaflet. These bore the title “Fellow Students!” and “German Students!” Continue reading
I alone carried out the duplicating work in my apartment. … Using this [absorbent] paper, I produced approximately 5000 copies of the leaflet “Call to All Germans”; and 2000 copies of “Fellow Students”.
Source: Hans Scholl’s second interrogation, February 18, 1943 (after 4 a.m.)
Sometime around February 10, our defeat in the East became known. As a result, the mood among the student body worsened. I got the idea to do justice in this situation [Note 1] by publishing a new leaflet. I wrote a draft entitled “Students!” and ran off about 200 copies of it. I did this with the same duplicating machine in my apartment. I was able to do so without my sister’s knowledge, because she was away that week. Continue reading
After the setbacks in the East had been announced, Hans Scholl once again produced leaflets, whereby he gave the draft of the ‘Student’ leaflet a new title. He mailed several hundred pieces of this leaflet. He took the addresses from the student directory of the University of Munich. Continue reading
Question: Does Alexander Schmorell own a typewriter or has he ever brought a typewriter to your apartment?
Answer: As far as I know, Schmorell does not own a typewriter. I also cannot think of a time when he would have brought a typewriter to my apartment. Continue reading
Recently, we ran off around 1200 more copies of the leaflet entitled “Fellow Students!” in Munich – around February 6 – 15, 1943. We addressed the envelopes or rather prepared a bulk mailing and got these leaflets ready to mail. Continue reading
I typed the “Students” leaflet on the Remington typewriter in Scholl’s residence. Scholl and I jointly wrote the text, compared our drafts, and determined that the content was suitable for our cause. Continue reading
But I would like to particularly emphasize that in his absence, we objected to an additional passage, the one Prof. Huber mentioned, [that says]: so that our glorious army may be saved. We therefore struck it. Continue reading
I do not know anything else about Professor Huber’s participation. I only know that he brought him [Hans Scholl] a directory from which students’ addresses were taken to mail the leaflets.
Source: April 2, 1943 interrogation of Gisela Schertling
Question: A University of Munich student directory for the Winter Semester 1941/42 was also found in your apartment. How did you get this directory and how did you make use of it? Continue reading
Both concoctions demonstrate an extraordinarily high niveau. The speaker is a person who has completely mastered the German language, who has thought through his topic with absolute clarity. The man knows exactly what he wants; he possesses detailed knowledge. He is a German. And indeed, he is not only not an immigrant, he is also a German who has experienced the political events here in this country for many years, up to and including the present time. Continue reading
Yesterday’s expert analysis, page 6, 2nd paragraph: I determined that the appeals did not have the tone of an embittered loner. In E 46, this is explicitly expressed. In addition, the author perceives himself to be surrounded by like-minded people (E 23; F 10) and – as in B – complains about their indifference ( C 3 ff., D 5 ff.). … Continue reading
We ended the conversation between 1 pm and 2 pm so we could finally eat lunch. … Continue reading
Question: Would you not like to finally state how the leaflet “Students!” came about, who wrote it, and why you have clearly withheld the truth about it till now? Continue reading
Question: What are the political views of Gisela Schertling?
Answer: Schertling comes from a family that is too National Socialist for me. Her father is editor of a National Socialist newspaper that I am unfamiliar with. I think it is the “Pössnecker Newspaper.” Schertling is a product of her family and is likewise sympathetic to National Socialism. Continue reading
During this time, Harnack had a political discussion with the accused Huber, during which Huber championed federalist ideas and Harnack – at least from the accused Huber’s point of view – championed Communist ideas. Continue reading
The conversation that followed was completely about politics and economics. On that occasion, Harnack was the chief spokesman. He mainly talked about general economic-political issues and particularly about questions of labor. He talked about the nationalization of industry. He thought that would create a correct social balance for the worker. Continue reading
To the question as to which political stream I adhere to, or rather what I think of National Socialism, I will admit without hesitation that I cannot identify myself as a National Socialist, because I am more interested in Russia. I readily acknowledge my love for Russia. In contrast, I reject Bolshevism. Continue reading
But the accused Huber did exactly the opposite! He increased their misgivings instead of stifling them; he gave speeches about the necessity of federalism and multi-party democracies for Germany, instead of teaching and exemplifying iron-willed National Socialism. In a time in which it was more important to strap on the sword instead of tackling problems, he sowed doubt among our youth. … Continue reading
[EXCERPT from March 8, 1943 document to better define the political views Alexander Schmorell would have espoused during the February 9 debate]
Statements Made by Alexander Schmorell: Continue reading
It is correct to say that we (my brother and I) talked freely with Graf about current events or political and military situations. Graf largely shared our opinion that we could not win the war and that the current form of government must be and would be changed once it was overthrown. Continue reading
Final Question: During this entire interrogation, which has stretched over two full days, we have discussed various political and philosophical questions, touching only the high points. Continue reading
To begin with, I would like to again emphasize that that I am more Russian than German according to my thoughts and feelings. However, I would like for it to be considered that I do not equate Russia with Bolshevism. On the contrary, I am an open enemy of Bolshevism. Continue reading
Politically speaking, I think Schmorell is a nonentity. He is a pure sentimentalist who is impervious to political thought processes. Culturally, he has leanings against National Socialism, for the same reasons that I do. Continue reading
Willi Graf has only been visiting my brother and me for about 8 weeks, and then only occasionally, usually afternoons or evenings. Our meetings and conversations with Graf are of a purely social nature. Continue reading
I must admit that politics was often discussed in this circle, namely treasonous politics. I heard them say that a democracy must replace the current regime. They indirectly made it clear that the current regime must be eliminated. But they certainly never told me that they were working to overthrow the current regime. Continue reading
Hans Scholl definitely was not a disciple of National Socialism. I could see in him clear antagonism to National Socialist ideology, but I never could see that he was thinking about ways to overthrow the National Socialist government or eliminate its leaders. He had a very impassioned manner of speaking and championed decidedly Protestant [religious] views. I never would have believed him capable of treasonous activities punishable by death. Continue reading
As far as I know, Harnak [sic, throughout] was at Scholl’s residence twice. At both meetings, revolutionary thoughts were contemplated. Mrs. Berndl was not present. She does not concern herself with politics at all. To what extent she is aware of Harnak’s oppositional attitudes is beyond my knowledge. Continue reading
As far as I know, my father was never politically active and is currently a member of the National Socialist Association of Lawyers. My siblings were likewise members of Hitler Youth or League of German Girls. If I am asked the question regarding how I stand with regards to the current regime, I herewith declare that I am a soldier, I feel like a soldier, and I fulfill my duties.
Source: Hans Scholl’s second interrogation, February 18, 1943
Both Scholls are very religious [Note 1] and frequently told me that our current theory of life needs renewal, and that Christian movements needed to be propagated. Scholl primarily stressed that another era must come in which there was more freedom in the fields of art and literature. Continue reading
Question: What do you think about the content of this leaflet [Note 1]]?
Answer: I think about it as a soldier should. Continue reading
As far as I know, my father had no party affiliation before the ascension to power. However, I do know that he has democratic leanings, that is, he is of the opinion that a nation should be governed democratically if they are mature enough for that form of government. Continue reading
I would like to add that Schmorell’s father is a German-Russian and that his mother was Russian (the latter is already deceased). Continue reading
Schertling’s political views do not coincide at all with mine, because in general she has National Socialist leanings. She was undoubtedly raised this way. Continue reading
Probst’s political views essentially are the same as my brother’s and mine. He is also of the opinion that we cannot win this war. Continue reading
I can say the following about Professor Huber’s political views: He is a great Nationalist. He regards bolshevism as the destroyer of European culture. He holds strong anti-Semitic views. Continue reading
If in this context it is said that the revision of the last leaflet draft demonstrates my Communist leanings and my fanatical opposition to National Socialism, I must defend myself against such accusations with all my being because in reality, I am a firm opponent of Bolshevism. Continue reading
Following various discussions with Schmoll (sic) [Note 1], I knew that he had a negative attitude towards the current regime. For example, he rejected its authoritarian national leadership and its Führerprinzip [authoritarian principle] and championed more the point of view of a democracy. Continue reading
The next day, or the day after, I think it was Thursday February 11, 1943, shortly after 11 am, I went to Scholl’s apartment. After the lecture, he had told me that I should come with him, that Harnack would be stopping by. When we arrived at Scholl’s apartment, Schmorell and Harnack were already standing in front of the door. A few minutes later, Professor Huber arrived as well. Continue reading